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MONTAGE SONG: “Synthetic Life” by Julian Emery, James Hockley & Adam Noble

By the 1950s, science fiction was beginning to become reality: machines didn’t just calculate; they began to learn. Machine calculating was out. Machine learning was in. But we had to start small.

Donald Michie’s “Machine Educable Noughts And Crosses Engine” — MENACE — was composed of 304 separate matchboxes that each depicted a possible state of a checker game. MENACE eventually learned to play perfectly, and we replicate and explain that process with Shreksapawn, our adaptation of Martin Gardner’s MENACE-inspired game of Hexapawn.

The goal of MENACE and Hexapawn was to determine how to get machines to learn, and eventually to get them to think. As we realized how the simplest computers could learn to play games perfectly, we may have stumbled on the secret to humans playing the game of life perfectly… or at least getting a tiny bit closer to perfection every day.

By harnessing math, the human intellect, and a bag full of crafting supplies, we can gain just a little glimpse into how intelligence actually works — whether it’s human or artificial.

*** SOURCES ***

“How to Build a Game-Learning Machine and Then Teach It to Play and Win,” Martin Gardner, Scientific American:

Matthew Scroggs’ MENACE Simulator:

MENACE: Machine Educable Noughts And Crosses Engine:

*** LINKS ***

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Hosted, Produced, And Edited by Kevin Lieber
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Research And Writing by Matthew Tabor

VFX By Eric Langlay

Huge Thanks To Paula Lieber

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MY PODCAST — THE CREATE UNKNOWN

#education #vsauce

Nguồn: https://thaymanhinhsamsunggiare.com/

Xem thêm bài viết khác: https://thaymanhinhsamsunggiare.com/game/

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36 COMMENTS

  1. Vsauce2 Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    I wanted to respond to two types of comments that have appeared more than once. I read all the comments and really appreciate when you all dig deep into these topics.

    First, we're missing some matchboxes because we don't actually need them! Some matchboxes work for two scenarios — once for the board position they display, and also for the board position that is a mirror image of it. The computer learns both board positions at the same time, but yes, at first glance it appears as though I just left some out. Martin Gardner didn't think they were necessary, either.

    Second, Hexapawn is a much simpler version of chess, so terms like "checkmate" and "stalemate" aren't exactly the same. They're simpler, too. In chess, checkmate is achieved when there is no way for your opponent to move without the king being captured. A stalemate occurs when a player has no legal move. A stalemate results in a draw.

    So, when that occurs in Hexapawn, it has the trappings of a stalemate but has the result and the spirit of a checkmate — the win is awarded to the player who moves in a way that creates a stalemate for their opponent. Because the situation results in a win instead of a draw, I thought it was more appropriate to compare it to checkmate, though it may have been clearer to avoid the language of "checkmate" entirely.

    Reply
  2. Celso Miguel Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    What happens if you of these computers to play against each other?

    Reply
  3. SARCASM IS THE KEYWORD Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    *reads the title
    me:i wont make sense right? like…its just random not learning

    me 8 mins later: ohh…

    Reply
  4. Bruno MARQUES Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    What would happen if you put another computer to play, by making another box to choose the first move? Would it still work?

    Reply
  5. Jakub Piekarski Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    7:06 Kevin could just move forward and win

    Reply
  6. AreEnTee Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Multiple k's (kkkk) is basically the Brazilian version of the "LOL"

    Reply
  7. me3333 Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    My matchbox computer rage quit and turned over the table.

    OK it was me but still…

    Reply
  8. Piotr Tokarz Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Wait, there are not all moves that computer could do at turn 2

    Reply
  9. Marry Wilczak Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Raid shadow legends learned how to manipulate the internet so everyone constantly knows about it.

    Reply
  10. Elan Sleazebaggano Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Wow, the Raid Saturations have been going on for more than a year now.

    Reply
  11. Anos Dudoruk Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Biu why shrek keeps winning? Its just fictional caracter WHO IS SHREKKKK

    Reply
  12. Kaeden Bak Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Shreksapwan

    Reply
  13. E2 Gaming Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    The truth about Raid Shadow Legends.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zel-wMsX9UM

    Reply
  14. Yusril Atfan Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    This is real AI in a nutshell.

    Reply
  15. Vince Nagy Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    I was wondering if it would be possible to create a (probably real computer controlled) algorithm witch works similarly but for different, more complicated games, for example, normal chess. Technicaly you can write a list of every possible chess move and a list of the moves of every possible chess game (however it would take a looong time) so…

    Reply
  16. Nacho Chess Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    6:35 imagine getting kkk

    Reply
  17. Dan -Horsenwelles- Williams Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    But fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HEREBut fir–

    Me: RAID SHADOW LEGENDS HERE

    Reply
  18. Pieter Geerkens Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Use Smarties, (or Reese's Pieces if you insist, but Smarties are bigger so win in my book) not beads.
    Much more fun "teaching" the computer its moves when you can eat its losing moves.

    Reply
  19. Elan Wan Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Congrats, you’re officially a famous youtuber now. You’ve been sponsored by raid shadow legends

    Reply
  20. Lheticus Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Um. A checkmate is when the opponent's king cannot avoid being taken. When one player in chess doesn't have any legal moves it's a STALEmate.

    Reply
  21. The Profile Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    2:56
    It's more like a stalemate than a checkmate.

    Reply
  22. TakeTheL08 Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    5:10
    Kevin: “TEAM KEVIN WILL MOVE HOW I WANT TEAM KEVIN TO MOVE BECAUSE I’M KEVIN”
    Me: Ooh, deep, man
    Oh, who am I kidding?

    Reply
  23. Boom Kill Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    8:54 is this a call for help?

    Reply
  24. calebmon Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    I wonder if you were to do this with tic tac toe how many match boxes would you need?

    Reply
  25. e e Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Had to put the lit in the box, had to put the bead in the box

    Reply
  26. Keaton P gaming! Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    1:03 sponsor over

    Reply
  27. King Orange Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    The video out of context:

    Shrek is superior

    Reply
  28. p4blo Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    And as always, wtf did I just watch.

    Reply
  29. D kiky Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    This dude speaks like he's overdosing on commas.

    Reply
  30. Marcus Dillem Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    what if "ksksksksksksksksksksksks…" happened?

    Reply
  31. fenhen Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    This is actually a basic intro into how lots of AI systems work.

    Reply
  32. Néstor D. Miranda Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Vsauce: and shrek
    Me: 10/10 100/100 best game best game

    Reply
  33. Peely Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    So this is a learning AI not really

    Reply
  34. Brack Carmony Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    Been done before, without having to shill to Raid…
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9c-_neaxeU

    Reply
  35. Garrett Chew Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    what would happen if he runs out of beads in a box

    Reply
  36. Girishkumar Peddi Posted on June 21, 2020 at 3:16 am

    2:46 Shrek would never lose a game even if he is teaching a tutorial. This part of the video is blasphemy

    Shrek is love, Shrek is life

    Reply
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